Posted in Intervention, Reading

A Review of Reading Programs

Last month our Developmental Language Disorders class participated in a Twitter chat where we discussed our thoughts on a variety of reading programs. This chat was collated by our professor, Dr. Lisa Archibald, and can be read at the following link: https://storify.com/larchiba6/westerndld2

These are the reading programs we discussed:

Progressive Phonics
http://www.progressivephonics.com

Empower Reading Program
http://www.sickkids.ca/LDRP/Empower-Reading/Program-description/index.html

RAVE-O
http://www.voyagersopris.com/curriculum/subject/literacy/rave-o/overview

CORI
http://cori.umd.edu/

The Balanced Literacy Diet
http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/balancedliteracydiet/Home/

The Florida Center for Reading Research
http://fcrr.org/resources/resources_sca.html

Promoting Adolescents Comprehension of Text (PACT)
http://www.meadowscenter.org/projects/detail/promoting-adolescents-comprehension-of-text-pact

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Posted in Intervention

The Importance of Social Competence

Social communicative competence is an important aptitude for children to possess because it allows them to interpret social situations and productively interact with their peers and others (i.e., to engage in play, resolve conflict, etc.). Social communication skills are supported by the child’s executive functions, language abilities, and social cognitive processes. Timler, Vogler-Elias, and McGill (cited below in the Additional Resources) discuss two outcomes which social communication interventions should target in order to be effective:
• Enhancement of language and social skills (with a particular focus on pragmatics)
• Generalization of social skills during authentic interactions with peers

Timler et al. describe 4 intervention contexts (from most to least naturalistic) in which social communication can best be targeted, which include:

  1. Environmental arrangement
  • Intervention in this context has typically occurred within preschool classrooms
  • This context involves arranging the classroom to include social toys (i.e., dress up clothes, board games, etc.) and centers to promote cooperative and pretend play
  • Through this arrangement, children with a range of social skills will have more opportunities to interact with each other in a natural context
  • The effectiveness of interventions in this context may be reduced in non-inclusive settings (i.e., children with disabilities segregated from typically-developing peers)
  1. Teacher-mediated intervention
  • This form of intervention focuses on increasing the classroom teacher’s use of verbal strategies which will promote peer interactions (i.e., “redirect” strategy where teachers encourage children to redirect requests from the teacher to a peer)
  • This method can increase peer interactions, after providing teachers with a relatively small amount of professional development on verbal strategies (however, teacher buy-in is necessary in order to see results!)
  1. Peer-mediated intervention
  • This type of intervention focuses on having the SLP recruit typical and pro-social peers to interact with children with social communication difficulties
  • Previous studies have shown that when children with social communication problems attempt to initiate interactions with typical peers, they are more likely to be rejected or ignored by these typical peers
  • Thus, in this case the typical peers are trained and receive “intervention”
  • The increased interaction between the trained peers and children with social communication problems is meant to provide the latter group with more opportunities to develop social communication skills
  • This method has primarily been used with children with ASD and has showed positive outcomes in terms of higher response rates by children with ASD and higher initiation rates of typical peers
  1. Clinician-mediated intervention
  • This mode of intervention involves individual or small group sessions with the child with social communication difficulties
  • Intervention components include:
    – Direct instruction
    – Modelling of desired behaviours
    – Role-play
    – Corrective feedback and praise to shape and reinforce skills
  • Timler et al. note that intensive instruction and concentrated practice, including opportunities where children can learn “when” and “how” to use social skills (i.e., contexts like peer group entry, cooperative play groups, conflict resolution, etc.), is crucial to help children acquire social skills
  • Typical peers can still be used in this form of intervention, however they do not receive training and are instead involved to allow the child with social communication difficulties to practice his/her newly acquired skills

I think that each of these contexts can create an effective framework to develop a child’s social communication skills. However, I feel that some important considerations when selecting an intervention context include:

  • After observing classroom dynamics, does the class seem to include children with a diverse range of social skills (i.e., are there pro-social children which could be selected for a peer-mediated intervention)?
  • Does the teacher appear to have the motivation to apply verbal strategies in the classroom (i.e., would you feel confident that a child’s social communication skills could improve with teacher-mediated intervention alone)?
  • What type of prompting hierarchy may be needed to have the child work towards independently and effectively using social communication skills (i.e., starting with a visual cue, a verbal prompt in the form of a direct request, a verbal prompt in the form of a direct model, etc.)?
  • Is the child able to self-monitor their use of the targeted skill or does self-monitoring need to be explicitly taught?

For more information, check out these additional resources:
Adams, C., Gaile, J., Lockton, E., & Freed, J. (2015). Integrating language, pragmatics, and social intervention in a single-subject case study of a child with a developmental social communication disorder. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 46(4), 294.

Timler, G. R., Vogler-Elias, D., & McGill, K. F. (2007). Strategies for promoting generalization of social communication skills in preschoolers and school-aged children. Topics in Language Disorders, 27(2), 167-181.

Winner, M. G. & Crooke, P. J. (2009). Social Thinking: A developmental treatment approach for students with social learning/social pragmatic challenges. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 16(2), 62-69.
https://www.socialthinking.com/Articles?id=3d555633f16f4396a5f0c22987bb9951
• This article presents great information on social communication development and the ILAUGH Model of Social Thinking

https://www.youtube.com/user/TDSocialSkills
• This YouTube channel provides several videos about social skills.

http://www.pbis.org/school
• This site provides information on promoting social competence at a school-wide level

Social Communication Intervention Project (University of Manchester)
http://research.bmh.manchester.ac.uk/scip/projectoverview
• This website provides information about a social communication intervention program which addresses the interactions between social understanding, language pragmatics, and language processing.

Posted in Intervention

Oral Language Goals for Older Students

Although promoting oral language is often discussed in the context of working with young children, it can also be an important intervention goal for older students. In ‘Communication Solutions for Older Students: Assessment and Intervention Strategies’, authors Vicki Lord Larson and Nancy L. McKinley provide potential goals for intervention for older students who need to strengthen their oral language. Below is a list of some goals for intervention aimed at intervention taken from the above-mentioned text:

Production of Linguistic Features
The student:
• Uses simple and complex sentences
• Uses appropriate sentence fragments
• Avoids using too many run-on sentences that are connected using and or and then
• Uses a variety of question forms (i.e., wh- questions, tag questions, interrogative reversals, and questions marked by rising intonation)
• Uses figurative language (i.e., slang, idioms, jargon, metaphors, similes, language for humour/entertainment)
• Avoids overusing nonspecific language (i.e., thing, stuff, and everybody) and can rephrase using more specific language if asked
• Displays few to no word-retrieval problems

Functions of Communication
The student:
• Gives an appropriate amount of information
• Gets information (i.e., by asking questions)
• Can describe an ongoing event with appropriate amount of detail for listeners
• Gets listener to do, believe, or feel something (i.e., persuade)
• Can express his/her ideas, perspective, and feelings
• Can indicate a readiness for further communication
• Uses language to solve problems
• Uses language to entertai

Fluency
The student:
• Avoids an excessive amount of verbal mazes that interfere with communication
• Avoids an excessive amount of false starts or abandoned utterances that interfere with communication

Conversations
The student:
• Applies the rules of conversation
• Initiates conversation in a variety of situations
• Selects appropriate topics
• Can maintain a topic over several turns between speaker and listener
• Switches topics in an appropriate manner
• Terminates conversations in a timely manner

Narrations
The student:
• Summarizes stories
• Categorizes stories
• Understands and produces complex stories with multiple embedded narratives
• Analyzes stories (13-15 years old)
• Can provide statements about the story’s theme or message (16 years-adulthood)
• Uses story grammar elements (i.e., can identify story’s characters, setting, events, goal, consequences, actions of characters, etc.)

Expository
The student:
• Integrates visual and verbal information
• Makes predictions
• Reasons logically
• Lists items relevant to a topic
• Justifies a position or decision
• Can compare and contrast ideas

These are some important considerations when targeting any of these goals:
Recruit related processes: This reduces the processing load on the child’s linguistic system.
Teach to a child’s strengths: This allows you to capitalize on a child’s natural abilities to facilitate learning. Using more effective cognitive processes allows the child to complete tasks using alternate strategies, or supports weaker processes as they work to complete the task.
•  Utilize dual coding if appropriate: For some children, being provided with auditory and visual cues can more effectively facilitate learning than receiving either of these cues in isolation. However, for other children dual coding may impose a greater load on their system and hinder learning. Thus, you need to analyze the child’s individual profile to determine if this will dual coding can better support them.

For more information, check out these additional resources:
Larson, V. L., & McKinley, N. L. (2007). Communication solutions for older students: Assessment and intervention strategies. Greenville, SC: Thinking Publications.